• 澳洲幸运10冠亚双漏洞,澳洲幸运10漏洞公式
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    成都市某区能源替代及限煤禁煤可行性研究报告DOC

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    能源是人类生存的物质基础,直接关系到社会进步、经济发展。在区域经济 规划和城市建设中,科学合理的能源结构是至关重要的,调整好能源结构是社会 经济可持续发展、改善人居环境质量的关键。大气环境质量问题是经济发展中新 出现的重要问题,不少国内外学者都开始进行关注。 本文主要研究燃煤对大气环境质量的影响和研究区域大气环境容量,分析能 源替代及限煤禁煤可行性研究。为当地政府的科学决策提供依据,对研究区域和 同类其他地区大气环境质量的改善具有积极意义。 为了研究各个区域、各行业的主要污染源和主要污染物,以及对研究区域能 源结构进行分析和评价,采用了等标负荷法对其分析和评价。评价结果表明,主 要污染物为可吸入颗粒物、二氧化硫、二氧化氮,主要污染源为等标污染负荷排 前 16 位的企业,占总负荷 90%以上。为了研究污染物排放量与环境质量响应模 型,本文对近五年污染源调查数据与大气环境质量监测数据进行了相关性分析, 分析发现,二氧化硫的排放量与其在空气中的浓度及大气污染指数具有良好的线 性关系,说明要降低空气中的二氧化硫浓度,必须消减它的排放量。烟尘的排放 量与大气中的可吸入颗粒物不具有明显的相关性,说明它在空气中的来源复杂, 要降低它在空气中的含量,必须采取多种途径。为了研究该区域的大气环境容量, 根据其地形、地貌和气象特点,结合达标规划的实际需要,采用 A-P 值法作为环 境空气质量模拟的数学模型。计算结果表明,二氧化硫和二氧化氮的环境剩余容 量还有一定的发展空间,而可吸入颗粒物的现状不乐观,因此要严格控制它的排 放。 为了研究能源替代及限煤禁煤的可行性,根据研究区域的天然气、电、液化 气等清洁能源发展规划,提出了能源替代方案,论证全区全面禁煤、限煤的可行 性,分析研究区域能源结构与能源替代可行性,主要从替代能源的优越性、技术 可行性、能源供应量和配套硬件设施和经济可行性上分析,分析结果表明,与煤 炭相比,虽然替代能源有资源、技术和环保的保障,由于一些替代能源的配套硬 件设施没有完善,所以实行清洁能源逐步替代,新建工业、商业、服务、文化和 集中居住区等必须使用清洁能源,事业单位和居民完全禁煤,对工业企业燃煤污 染源实行严格控制,逐渐扩大清洁能源替代所占比例,最终实现全面禁煤。为了预测能源替代前后对大气环境的影响,根据研究区域的实际情况,本文采用箱式 模型进行预测,根据能源结构的调整和消耗量的增加预测了 2010 年、2020 年能 源调整前后的能源消耗和污染物排放量,从预测可以看出,在不采取任何燃煤污 染控制措施方案的前提下,2010、2015 年都能达到国家二级标准,到 2020 年可 吸入颗粒物、二氧化硫的平衡浓度都会超过国家二级标准,导致环境空气质量恶 化,最终会造成全区环境空气严重污染。采取燃煤污染措施后,燃煤量减少对全 区的可吸入颗粒物和二氧化硫产生的环境效果非常明显,到 2020 年这些污染物 的平衡浓度都能达到国家一级标准,研究区域的环境空气质量将会有明显的提 高。 关键词:限煤禁煤 能源替代 清洁能源 环境空气质量 污染源The study on Feasibility of Energy Substitutes and Limiting and Enduring the coal of an area in Chengdu Introduction of the author: Guokunpeng, male, was born in June, 1982 whose tutor was Associate Professor Luoli . He graduated from Chengdu University of Technology in Environmental Engineering major and was granted the Master Degree of Engineering in June, 2009. Abstract Energy is the physical basis of human existence and important pillar of social advance and economical development. In the economical programme of district and city construction, the scientific and reasonable constitution of energy is the most important. To regulate the constitution of energy reasonable is the key of social and economical sustained development and living environmental improvement. Atmospheric environmental quality in economic development is a new important issue. Some researchers began to give attention about environmental quality. This specification is set for the theses of Chengdu University of Technology. This paper discusses the feasibility of the energy substitutes and the coal limiting and the coal enduring of the research regional. Taking the sustainable development as guiding ideology,this paper generalized analysis coal-burnig to the influence on atmospheric environment in administrative regionalization of 277 square kilometer area coverages.To research the influence of coal-burning on Atmospheric environment and the atmosphere environment capacity, it’s significant for Government’s scientific policy decisions to provide technical support and ultimately achieve regional air quality improvement. It will have the positive sense to the regional area and the similar other area’s atmospheric environment quality improvement. To research the main pollution sources and the principal pollutants by various regions and various sectors, it’s using the research method of equivalent standard pollution load for analysis and evaluation. This article has analyzed the the sulphur dioxide, particulates with diameter of 10μm, nitrogen dioxide on the monitoring data of each monitoring points and has calculated various quarters and annual average value during 2003-2007 year and obtained their pollution rule and characteristic. The result shows that the main contamination is particulates with diameter of 10μm or less, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. The main pollution sources are the row of first 16 enterprise. They occupies always shoulders above 90%. In order to study the pollutant discharge amount and the environment quality response model, it carried on the relevant analysis to near five year source of pollution cruising data and the atmospheric environment quality monitor data, the result shows that the sulphurdioxide withdrawal has the good linear relationship with it in the air density and the air pollution index, if it reduce the sulphur dioxide density in the air, it must be reduced its withdrawal. The mist and dust withdrawal and the atmosphere particles not to have the obvious relevance, it explained that it is complex in the air origin. If reducing it in the air content, it must adopt many kinds of ways. In order to study this region the atmospheric environment capacity, it according to its terrain, the landform and the meteorological characteristic, this paper applied the A-P value method to the computation of the atmospheric environmental capacity and proposed the total quantity control plan target. The computed result indicated that the sulphur dioxide and the nitrogen dioxide environment surplus capacity also has certain development opportunities, but the inhale particles are not to be optimistic in the present situation, therefore it adopts to control the strict emissions. In order to study the energy substitution and the limiting and enduring coal feasibility, it according to the clean energy development project of the natural gas,the electricity and the liquid gas, this paper proposed the energy alternative scheme and proved the feasibility to endure the coal and to limit the coal comprehensively.It has analyzed the energy structure and the energy substitutions feasibility. According to the adjustment of energy structure and the increment of power consumption, the newly built industry,commercial, the service,cultural,the entertainment project, the newly built resident plot, places the plot and the concentrated community must use the clean energy; the second step, completing the enterprises and institutions,the industry and commerce management and to the civilian's house coal-burning contamination control. Completing the industrial enterprise coal-burning source of pollution control. In order to investigate the effect of energy substitution on atmospheric environment according to the actual stitution of regional area. This paper establishes the predictable model with the box-type and has forecast the energy consumption and the pollutant discharge amount around the energy adjustment in 2010 and in 2020. On the premise of adopting nothing controlling measures, the annual concentration of the sulphur dioxide and particulates with diameter of 10μm can attain national Grade II standards account in 2010 and in 2015. However, the annual concentration of the sulphur dioxide and particulates with diameter of 10μm did not attain national Grade II standards account in 2020.As a result, it will cause seriously ambient air pollution of the entire district. On the premise of adopting controlling measures, the reduction of coal-burning quantity produces the obvious environment effect which the particles and the sulphur dioxide produce, the annual concentration of the sulphur dioxide and particulates with diameter of 10μm can attain national Grade I standards account in 2020. The ambient air quality will have the distinct enhancement. Lastly, the regional area will bring about enduring coal. Keywords:The coal limiting and enduring Energy substitution Cleaner energy Ambient air quality Source of pollution目 录 第 1 章 引 言..............................................................................................................1 1.1 课题来源 .............................................................................................................1 1.2 课题研究的意义、目的 .....................................................................................1 1.3 国内外研究现状 .................................................................................................2 1.3.1 化石能源危害方面的研究...........................................................................2 1.3.2 清洁能源可行性研究...................................................................................6 1.3.3 能源结构调整趋势研究................................................................................9 1.4 研究内容及技术路线 ........................................................................................ 11 1.4.1 研究内容..................................................................................................... 11 1.4.2 技术路线..................................................................................................... 11 第 2 章 研究区域大气环境质量现状和污染源状况..............................................13 2.1 研究区域环境空气质量现状 ...........................................................................13 2.1.1 监测分析采用的标准和监测点位..............................................................13 2.1.2 2003 年—2008 年大气环境质量空间和季节平均值变化规律................13 2.1.3 近期的大气质量现状分析.........................................................................15 2.1.4 研究区域空气污染的来源分析.................................................................16 2.2 环境空气质量现状评价 ...................................................................................19 2.2.1 评价因子及评价标准.................................................................................19 2.2.2 评价方法及评价模式.................................................................................19 2.2.3 环境空气质量现状评价结果与分析.........................................................20 2.3 污染源状况 .......................................................................................................21 2.3.1 主要污染源现状调查.................................................................................21 2.3.2 2007 年污染物排放总量..........................................................................21 2.4 污染源和污染物状况评价 ................................................................................25 2.5 大气环境容量的研究 .......................................................................................26 2.5.1 A-P 值法计算大气环境容量 ......................................................................26 2.5.2 总量控制规划指标.....................................................................................29 2.6 本章小结 ...........................................................................................................30 第 3 章 研究区域能源结构现状与需求分析............................................................32 3.1 能源结构现状 ...................................................................................................32 3.1.1 煤炭.............................................................................................................33 3.1.2 燃料油.........................................................................................................34 3.1.3 液化气.........................................................................................................34 3.1.4 天然气.........................................................................................................35 3.1.5 电力.............................................................................................................35 3.2 能源消耗结构分析 ............................................................................................35 3.3 能源需求的预测 ...............................................................................................36 3.3.1 工业源.........................................................................................................36 3.3.2 生活源.........................................................................................................37 3.3.3 交通源.........................................................................................................383.4 污染物变化预测 ...............................................................................................39 3.5 本章小结 ...........................................................................................................40 第 4 章 替代能源及限煤禁煤可行性分析..............................................................41 4.1 以电代煤可行性研究 .......................................................................................41 4.1.1 以电代煤优越性分析.................................................................................41 4.1.2 以电代煤技术可行性分析.........................................................................43 4.1.3 电的资源量和配套硬件设施分析.............................................................44 4.1.4 以电代煤经济可行性分析.........................................................................45 4.2 以天然气替代煤可行性研究 ...........................................................................46 4.2.1 以天然气替代煤优越性分析.....................................................................46 4.2.2 天然气技术可行性分析.............................................................................48 4.2.3 天然气的资源量和配套硬件设施比较.....................................................49 4.2.4 以天然气替代煤经济可行性分析..............................................................50 4.3 以液化气替代煤可行性研究 ...........................................................................51 4.3.1 以液化气替代煤优越性分析......................................................................52 4.3.2 液化气替代煤技术可行性分析.................................................................53 4.3.3 液化气的资源量和配套硬件设施分析......................................................54 4.3.4 以液化气替代煤经济可行性分析..............................................................54 4.4 以秸秆成型燃料替代煤可行性研究 ...............................................................55 4.4.1 以秸秆成型替代煤优越性分析.................................................................55 4.4.2 以秸秆成型替代煤技术可行性分析.........................................................56 4.4.3 秸秆的资源量和配套硬件设施分析.........................................................58 4.4.4 以秸秆替代煤经济可行性分析..................................................................59 4.5 以沼气替代煤可行性研究 ...............................................................................59 4.5.1 以沼气替代煤优越性分析.........................................................................60 4.5.2 以沼气替代煤技术可行性分析.................................................................61 4.5.3 沼气的资源量和配套硬件设施分析.........................................................62 4.5.4 以沼气替代煤经济可行性分析.................................................................65 4.6 限煤禁煤研究及预测 ........................................................................................65 4.7 本章小结 ...........................................................................................................70 第 5 章 能源调整前后大气环境质量的预测..........................................................71 5.1 混合层高度 H 的确定 .......................................................................................71 5.2 预测模型的选取 ...............................................................................................72 5.3 模型验证与修正 ...............................................................................................73 5.4 预测结果分析 ...................................................................................................74 5.5 本章小结 ...........................................................................................................75 结 论 致 谢
    澳洲幸运10冠亚双漏洞,澳洲幸运10漏洞公式